Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3; BP-3) is a compound used in sunscreens and enters the oceans due to improper disposal. It is known to disrupt the endocrine signaling in marine organisms, leading to immune and reproductive abnormalities in corals, shellfish and fishes. In this study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of BP-3 (0, 10, 100 and 1,000 μg/L) on the fertilized eggs and hatched larvae of Oplegnathus fasciatus. The morphological changes and hatching and survival rates during embryo development were assessed. In addition, the levels of triiodothyronine (T3) were also measured. The hatched larvae exposed to BP-3 at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/L for 24 h displayed malformation of the tail. After 36 h of exposure to BP-3, spinal deformity was observed at all tested concentrations. The hatching rate was significantly low when exposed to 100 μg/L of BP-3. A high levels of T3 was observed when the larvae were exposed to BP-3 at a concentration of 1,000 μg/L for 96 h (the end of the experiment). This may be related to increased size of larvae at 1,000 μg/L BP-3. In conclusion, our results suggested that BP-3 may interfere with embryo development, resulting in a reduction in hatching rate and malformation of larvae.
Oxybenzone, Benzophenone-3, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Embryogenesis, Triiodothyronine